Urological diseases in children


A wide range of urological clinical conditions are dealt with by experts such as Urologist in Advanced medical Center. A wide majority of these conditions are part of congenital abnormalities, as urological diseases are frequently diagnosed in the newborn babies, after congenital heart defect. Read on to know more about urological diseases in the newborns:

Congenital and acquired genital abnormalities 

Some babies with urological birth defects affect both the reproductive organs and the genitalia: the scrotum or penis in baby boys and the vagina and labia in baby girls. Many of these birth defects are recognizable before birth on prenatal ultrasound, while others are identified after birth. These include: 

  • Hypospadias: this is the condition whereby the opening of the urethra is on the underside of penis and not at the tip. Hypospadias interferes with the normal flow of the urine and causes trouble later in life with flow of semen. Hypospadias is treated surgically when the baby is 6 months to 2 years old, the time when the growth of penis is minimal.In such babies, circumcision is not advised as the foreskin may be needed for penile repair. 
  • Posterior urethra valves: these are small leaflets of tissue in the urethra that partly block the flow of urine in babies. Posterior urethra valves only occur in baby boys and harm the bladder, ureters, urethra and kidneys. The symptoms can vary from child to child and can be mild or severe. 
  • Epididymitis: is the inflammation of the epididymitis—which is the coiled tube on the male testicle carrying sperm to the urethra. Epididymitis can be secondary to a urinary tract infection, or a structural problem. It presents with pain and swelling, with fever and heaviness. 

Urinary tract disorders

Urinary tract disorders treated byurology specialists include: 

  • Bladder exstrophy: when the bladder of the baby has grown inside out, such that it is sticking through the wall of the abdomen, it is known as bladder exstrophy. Epispadias occurs frequently withbladder exstrophy and occursin three stages. Exstrophy can be diagnosed through prenatal ultrasound. 
  • Hematuria: when urine containsred blood cells, this is called hematuria. This hematuria can be microscopic in amount or visible to the naked eye. Hematuria can occur secondary to: cancers, kidney infection, stones in the urinary tract, sickle cell disease or polycystic kidney disease. The treatment of hematuria is based on the causative factor.
  • Megaureter: this is the condition in which the ureter is much wider than normal. The ureters are tubes that carry the urine from the kidneys to the bladder, and widening more than 3/8 of an inch is called megaureter. In comparison to normal ureters, these do not drain urine normally, and may cause backflow of urine into the kidneys. Subsequently, there is kidney damage and recurrent infections. 
  • Ureterocele: is when part of the ureter becomes larger and bulges, particularly near the bladder. This is common when the opening of the ureter into the bladder is too small and blocking the flow of urine. Consequently, the ureter then swells just before the narrowing. Ureterocele often occurs concurrently with ureteric duplication. Urinary reflux and hydronephrosis occur frequently in such patients. 
  • Neurogenic bladder: in children neurogenic bladder means nerve damage. Such children would have trouble holding and releasing urine. The causes of nerve damage in such babies include: spinal cord injury, spina bifida and central nervous system tumor. Neurogenic bladder presents with urine leakage, and urinary retention. Treatment of neurogenic bladder in children includes: medication, catheterization, timed voiding and artificial sphincter. 
The diagnosis of congenital urological conditions need complete physical exam by an expert such as Urologist in Reliance Hospital. Timely diagnosis and treatment are mandated for proper recovery.